New Thermodynamics: Inelastic Collisions and Cosmology

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

  •   Kent W. Mayhew

Abstract

The sciences have evolved around elastic collisions although most collisions are inelastic. Elastic collisions allow for simpler mathematical modelling, that may not be particularly suitable for cosmology.


Inelastic collisions create photons. This has led to consideration of an ensemble of inelastic collisions producing CMB. This will further lead to brief discussions concerning the nature of dark matter, and dark energy. This will then be followed by a simpler analogy concerning the creation of Hawking’s radiation.


A consequence of collisions being inelastic is that as a mathematical contrivance, entropy may only be an approximation when applied to the real world. And this fits well with this author’s “New Thermodynamics”.


Keywords: Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation, Cosmology, Dark Matter, Inelastic Collisions

References

Mayhew, K.W., “New Thermodynamics: Inelastic collisions, blackbody radiation, entropy and light” E-J Phys., Vol 2 (6) 2020 pp. 1-6.

Mayhew, K.W., A new perspective for kinetic theory and heat capacity” Prog. In Phys. 13, 3, 2017 pp. 166-173.

Mayhew, K.W., “Kinetic theory: Flatlining of polyatomic gases:” Prog. In Phys. 14, 2 2018 pp. 75-79.

Mayhew, K.W., “New thermodynamics: Untangling entropy’s web, Self-published 2020.

Mayhew K.W., “Illusions of Elastic Collisions in the Sciences: An Essay”, EJERS, Vol. 5, 1, (2020) pp. 87-90.

Carroll, S., “From eternity to here: The quest for the ultimate theory of time” Penguin group 375 Hudson street New York New York, 2010.

Hawking Stephen “A brief history of time” Bantam Dell Publishing 1988.

Atkins, P. “Four laws that drive the universe” Oxford University Press Oxford England 2007.

Ben-Naim, Arieh, “Time’s Arrow (?): The timeless nature of entropy and the second law of thermodynamics Lulu Publishing 2018.

Ben-Naim, Arieh, “Entropy and the second law: Interpretation and misss-interpretation” World Scientific Publishing Singapore 2012.

Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk%3AHistory_of_entropy, Nov. 3, 2020.

Mayhew, K.W., “Entropy: An ill-conceived mathematical contrivance?, Phys. Essays, 28, 3 (2015), pp. 352-357.

Mayhew, K.W., “New Thermodynamics: Reversibility and Free Energy”, Hadronic Journal, Vol 43, 1, 2020 pp. 51-60.

Mayhew, K.W. “Resolving problematic thermodynamics” Hadronic Journal, Vol 41, 2018 pp. 257-272.

Mayhew K.W., “New Thermodynamics: Inefficiency of a Piston-cylinder”, EJERS, Vol. 5, 2, (2020), pp. 187-191.

Mayhew. K. W., “New Thermodynamics: Reversibility, Entropy and Adiabatic Processes”, E-J Phys. Vol 2 (3) 2020 pp.1-6.

Aguirre, J. and Hernandez, H. (2020). Entropy: A Physical Entity or a Mathematical Construct? ForsChem Research Reports, 5, 2020-10. doi: 10.13140/RG.2.2.34938.93124.

Hatsopoulos, G., N. Beretta, G. P., “Where is the entropy challenge?” AIP Conference Proceedings 1033, 34 (2008); https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2979057.

Mayhew K.W., “Second law and lost work”. Phys. Essays, 28, 1 (2015) pp. 152-155.

Capek, V., Sheehan, D. P., “Challenges to the Second law of thermodynamics: Theory and Experiment” Springer press, Neatherlands, 2005.

Dunning-Davis, J, Norman R.L. “Truth in Paradigms” Standing Dead Publications, 2017.

Mayhew K.W., “New Thermodynamics: Temperature, Sun’s Insolation, Thermal, and Blackbody Radiation” EJERS, Vol. 5, 3(2020) pp. 264-270.

Eisberg, R., Resnick, R., “Quantum Physics”, John Wiley & Sons Toronto 1974.

Penzias, A. A.; Wilson, R. W. "A Measurement of Excess Antenna Temperature at 4080 Mc/s". The Astro-Phys. J. 142, 1 (1965) 419–421.

Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmic_microwave_background, Nov. 4, 2020.

https://sci.esa.int/web/planck/-/60499-from-an-almost-perfect-universe-to-the-best-of-both-worlds.

Website: https://wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/bb_tests_cmb.html, Nov., 2 2020.

Website: https://www.cosmos.esa.int/web/planck/publications, Nov. 3, 2020.

Website: https://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/abs/2020/09/aa33880-18/aa33880-18.html Nov., 2,2020.

Anthony C. "CMB anisotropy science: A review". Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. 8: (2012) 42–52.

Website: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_of_evil_(cosmology) Nov., 2, 2020.

Website: https://www.sciencealert.com/the-spin-directions-of-spiral-galaxies-suggest-the-axis-of-evil-is-real Nov., 2, 2020.

Website: https://www.k-state.edu/media/newsreleases/2020-06/study-suggests-universe-has-defined-structure.html Nov., 2, 2020.

Website: https://www.forbes.com/sites/startswithabang/2018/06/22/why-cosmologys-expanding-universe-controversy-is-an-even-bigger-problem-than-you-realize/?sh=25153b62381e Nov. 2, 2020.

Website: https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/07/debate-intensifies-over-speed-expanding-universe. Nov. 2, 2020.

Website: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/expanding-universe-slows-then-speeds/, Nov.2, 2020.

Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hawking_radiation Nov., 10, 2020.

Mayhew, K.W., “Energetics of Nucleation”, Phys. Essays, 17, 4 (2004), pp. 476-494.

Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elastic_collision Nov., 11, 2020.

Website: https://brilliant.org/wiki/analyzing-elastic-collisions/ Nov., 11, 2020.

Mayhew K.W., “New thermodynamics: Rethinking the Science of climate change”, EJERS, Vol. 5, 5, (2020), pp. 559-564.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

How to Cite
Mayhew, K. W. (2020). New Thermodynamics: Inelastic Collisions and Cosmology. European Journal of Applied Physics, 2(6). https://doi.org/10.24018/ejphysics.2020.2.6.32